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Conversion from OpenStreetMap data

The routing data for CycleStreets is based on the maps provided by the IconOpenStreetMap (OSM) project.

We are very grateful to GeoFabrik for providing extracts of the planet database.

Latest update of OSM data

We aim to updating the routing data every week, but due to ongoing development of the system this can happen less frequently. The procedure starts by retrieving the latest OpenStreetMap planet extract files from the GeoFabrik download site. As at June 2013 it takes about 48 hours to process that into a routing system. The final stage requires human intervention to switch over to new routing data. The log of the latest update is shown below.

For map changes to make it into our routing system they must be saved before GeoFabrik starts building the British Isles Extract. If that extract is available before the CycleStreets import is started, then those changes should make it into the latest edition. If either or both deadlines are missed it could be another week before they appear.

The background map tiles are another matter - we do not produce these ourselves but take them from various sources. The OpenCycleMap tiles are updated at the end of the working week.

CycleStreets is now using ODbL licensed data.

Import log:

Import started.
Revision: 26545 .

Mon, 10 Dec 2018 10:44:31 +0000

Optimization completed.
Compression ratio: joints 229%, legs 186%.

Mon, 10 Dec 2018 12:10:23 +0000, after 112.814 hours

Import finished.

Tue, 11 Dec 2018 05:24:49 +0000, after 17.241 hours

Journey planning area: UK and Ireland

Definition: compression ratio.

Nominatim

CycleStreets uses the Icon Nominatim service to translate placenames into coordinates of longitude and latitude.

How CycleStreets interprets OSM data

Icon CycleStreets bases its cycle routing on map data from OSM. The ways in OSM are described by tags, and these are interpreted as streets with various types of cycling provison.

Cycle Routing Tags

The following sections describe the main tags that are used to build CycleStreets routing. The usage column is a count of the number of ways with those tags after the processing described here has been applied.

Highway Tag

Defined: Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Highway | Usage statistics

The following table has been compiled from the OSM wiki and describes the main values of the highway tag of relevance to cycle routing. It is a summary of a more detailed list which is shown at: Icon Basic interpretation of streets from the OSM highway tag. Note the presence of highway tag on a way implies that access=yes.

Tag OSM Implies Description Usage
highway=residential This tag is used for roads accessing or around residential areas but which are not a classified or unclassified highway. 10697655
highway=service OSM: generally for access to a building, motorway service station, beach, campsite, industrial estate, business park, etc. This is also commonly used for access to parking and trash collection. Sometimes called an alley, particularly in the US. 10329624
highway=track OSM: Roads for agricultural use, gravel roads in the forest etc.; usually unpaved/unsealed but may occasionally apply to paved tracks as well. 6730853
highway=footway foot=designated OSM: For designated footpaths, i.e. mainly/exclusively for pedestrians. If bicycles are allowed as well, you can indicate this by adding a bicycle=yes tag. 5333077
highway=unclassified OSM: Public road, primarily for access to properties, paved, non-residential. In an urban context, these are likely to have pavements (sidewalks) and be fit for two-way traffic, perhaps in an industrial or commercial district. 3660099
highway=path motor_vehicle=no
emergency=destination
Shaun: Horridly complex tag, everyone uses it differently. For the UK it is probably best to use footway unless there is a bicycle=designated tag OSM: A route open to the public which is not intended for motor vehicles, unless so tagged separately. This includes snowmobile trails, ski trails, hiking trails, horse trails, bike trails and paths, mountain bike trails as well as combinations of the above and other modes of transportation. These routes may have any type of surface. The default access restriction of highway=path is "open to all non-motorized vehicles, but emergency vehicles are allowed". (Although it depends on each country what vehicles are allowed by default). This tag is used for paths for which all and any of highway=footway, highway=cycleway and highway=bridleway would be inappropriate or inadequate (or simply not sufficient), but which are nonetheless usable for travel or navigation. They might be not intended for any particular use, or intended for several different uses. Intended uses can be indicated with the access=designated keys. It is also used for hiking trails. If a path is wide enough for four-wheel-vehicles, and it is not legally signposted or otherwise only allowed for pedestrians, cyclists or horseriders, it is often better tagged as a highway=track. 3224633
highway=tertiary access=yes OSM: A class of road between secondary and unclassified. A "C" road in the UK. Generally for use on roads wider than 4 metres (13'), and for faster/wider minor roads that aren't A or B roads. In the UK, they tend to have dashed lines down the middle, whereas unclassified roads don't. 2003122
highway=secondary motorcar=yes OSM: A highway which is not part of a major route, but nevertheless forming a link in the national route network. It normally has 2 lanes. The traffic for both directions is usually separated by a central line on the road. 1596974
highway=primary motorcar=yes
hgv=yes
OSM: A major highway linking large towns, normally with 2 lanes. The traffic for both directions is usually not separated by a central barrier. 914754
highway=cycleway bicycle=designated OSM: The highway=cycleway indicates that the used way is mainly or exclusively for bicycles. Some consider it better to use highway=path if use is not restricted to cyclists. No two cyclists will ever agree what constitutes a good cycle route. Cyclists can seek out anything from only off-road routes to the quickest route on a multi-lane highway. Some want a flat commute, while others seek out hills for a recreational challenge. This is the strength of OSM. It can capture the cycling relevant data as possible, and each cyclist can choose the way that best suits. 783351
highway=steps foot=yes OSM: For flights of steps on footways. See also wheelchair=*. 562063
highway=living_street maxspeed=* OSM: Living streets - compared to residential streets (highway=residential) - have special regulations like lower speed limits, special parking restrictions, special traffic rules, etc. 283706
highway=pedestrian foot=yes OSM: For town centres and civic areas, where wide expanses of hard surface are provided for pedestrians to walk (often between shops). Vehicles are able to use this kind of way, may be allowed during special hours to unload merchandise, but are often prevented from entering by bollards. Cycling may be allowed, depending on the country or local restrictions. This can be specified with bicycle=yes or bicycle=no. For small paths which are too small for cars to pass (no real streets) use highway=footway instead. 279547
highway=motorway_link access=no
motor_vehicle=yes
hgv=yes
surface=paved
In order to help calculate the correct exit number from roundabouts for display in route listings, ways of this type infer bicycle=yes here. After roundabouts have been processed all motorway_link ways are deleted to avoid serving them as part of a route. See also highway=motorway_junction. 195775
highway=trunk_link foot=no OSM: The link tags are used to identify ramps or slip roads connecting other more standard highways to each other. Outside the UK bicycles are usually prohibited. The bicycle=no from the implied tags is removed and overruled by inferred tag bicycle=yes to help calculate roundabout exits. 112371
highway=trunk surface=paved OSM: Important roads that aren't motorways. Typically maintained by central, not local government. Need not necessarily be a divided highway. In the UK, all green signed A roads are, in OSM, classed as 'trunk'. Outside the UK bicycles are usually prohibited. 93254
highway=primary_link motorcar=yes
hgv=yes
OSM: The link tags are used to identify ramps or slip roads connecting other more standard highways to each othe. 93245
highway=bridleway horse=designated
foot=yes
bicycle=yes
motor_vehicle=no
OSM: A way intended for use by pedestrians and horse riders. In the UK and Czech Republic, these are rights-of-way for pedestrians and equestrians (horses). Cyclists are also permitted (by Countryside Act of 1968) unless subject to orders made by local authority. Usually bridleways are signed "no cycles" where this is the case and a reasonable default assumption is that cycles are permitted where not explicitly prohibited. There is no obligation to ensure suitability for use by bicycle. 59462
highway=road OSM: A road of unknown classification. This is intended as a temporary tag to mark a road until it has been properly surveyed. Once it has been surveyed, the classification should be updated to the appropriate value. 45396
highway=aerialway Used for various forms of transport for passengers and goods that use wires, including cable-cars, chair-lifts and drag-lifts. 15180
highway=ferry Slow crossing, with a half an hour delay.[This is not a valid OSM highway tag value, it is inferred from route=ferry by CycleStreets.] 5008
highway=byway This is a deprecated tag and describes an UK-only road. Please tag it as highway=track or highway=path as appropriate, and its legal designation with designation=byway_open_to_all_traffic or designation=restricted_byway. 86
highway=motorway access=no
motor_vehicle=yes
oneway=yes
surface=paved
74
highway=construction construction=yes OSM: The construction tag may be used for any road or railway under construction. 51
highway=bus_guideway access=no
bus=designated
OSM: A busway that is side guided "rails like", not suitable for other traffic. 7

Cycleway Tag

Defined: Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Cycleway | Usage statistics

The following table summarizes the most common values:

Tag OSM Implies Description Usage
cycleway=lane bicycle=designated OSM: A lane is a cycle track that lies within the roadway (known as "bike lanes" in the United States). 245927
cycleway=track bicycle=designated OSM: A track is a cycle path that is separated from cars. 94662
cycleway=opposite OSM: The route may be cycled in the direction opposite of other traffic, but does not have a dedicated lane. 48848
cycleway=shared_lane Cyclists share a lane with motor vehicles, and there are markings indicating that motorists and cyclists should share this lane. The road markings are usually there to highlight a cycle route or to remind drivers that you can cycle there. 20508
cycleway=shared Where the cycleway is shared with other users. The use of this tag needs further investigation - as there seems to be various ways of indicating this in OSM. 12504
cycleway=opposite_lane OSM: The route is a lane, but bicycles may go in the direction opposite of other traffic. Only applies where oneway=yes. 7451
cycleway=share_busway A special lane reserved for public transport on which cyclist are also allowed to bike. 3332
cycleway=segregated When pedestrians and cyclists are separated from each other. The use of this tag needs further investigation - as there seems to be various ways of indicating this in OSM. 1866
cycleway=opposite_track OSM: The track may be cycled in the direction opposite of other traffic. 1676
cycleway=opposite_share_busway A contraflow bus lane which is also a contraflow cycle lane. 117

Access Tag

Defined: Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Access | Usage statistics | Access restrictions

OSM: "Use access tags to describe the allowed or preferred level of access along a footpath, road or any other kind of way element. For describing the legal accessibility of an element. Use the access=* key to describe a general access restriction (all transport modes). This may be tightened or relaxed by adding keys which describe access for more specific modes of transport. These keys each have a place in an implied tree structure in which keys become narrower in scope as they branch out from the root."

The following table summarizes how the access tag is used on OSM ways for the UK and Ireland in December 2010.

Tag Description Usage
access=private OSM: The owner may give permission on an individual basis. Passing through here requires special permission. Definitely should be noted in itinerary listings. 24000
access=permissive It is generally accepted that you are allowed to use this route without asking for permission. But perhaps this should include a note in itinerary listing. 4500
access=no OSM: Access by this transport mode is not permitted, public does not have a right of way. This route is prohibited and will not appear in CycleStreets (unless overruled in the foot or bicycle tag). 2600
access=yes OSM: The public has an official, legally-enshrined right of access, i.e. it's a right of way. This is assumed, if not already present, and means that this way is open to the public. 1500
access=destination OSM: The public has right of access only if this is the only road to your destination. This route should only be used as a means of getting to or from a specific point. It should not be used for transit to somewhere else. 1000
access=designated OSM: A way marked for a particular use. Normally the designation is with the particular use, such as foot=designated or bicycle=designated. 0

The access tag can be overruled by the foot or bicycle tag, see below.

Bicycle Tag

Defined: Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Bicycle | Usage statistics

The following table summarizes how the bicycle tag is used on OSM ways for the UK and Ireland in December 2010.

Tag Description Usage
bicycle=yes Cycling is permitted, overriding the access tag. 3400
bicycle=no OSM: Access by this transport mode is not permitted, public does not have a right of way. This is interpreted to mean that bicycles are not welcome here, neither ridden nor pushed. 1500
bicycle=designated OSM: The way is a preferred/designated route for a specific vehicle type or types. Basically this means that it is part of a cycle route. 1000
bicycle=permissive OSM: The owner gives general permission for access. Same interpretation as for the access tag. 450
bicycle=dismount Riders are either required or requested to dismount along this section or route. Use of this tag is expected to grow now that it is accessible in the OSM Potlatch 2 online editor. 53
bicycle=private OSM: The owner may give permission on an individual basis. Same interpretation as for the access tag. 17
bicycle=destination OSM: The public has right of access only if this is the only road to your destination. Same as access=destination. 0
bicycle=use_sidepath Most often used in countries that have mandatory cycleways - i.e. where riders are expected to use a parallel cycleway if it exists. Treated here as cycle-able, but rather hostile. http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Tag:bicycle%3Duse_sidepath 0

Foot Tag

Defined: Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Key:foot | Usage statistics

The following table summarises how the foot tag is used on OSM ways for the UK and Ireland in December 2010.

Tag Description Usage
foot=yes OSM: The public has an official, legally-enshrined right of access, i.e. it's a right of way. Use of this tag is very high because of a feature of Potlatch 1. 123000
foot=permissive OSM: The owner gives general permission for access. Same interpretation as for the access tag. 14000
foot=designated OSM: The way is a preferred/designated route for walking. Means that it is part of a walking route. 12000
foot=no OSM: Access by this transport mode is not permitted, public does not have a right of way. Not for walking. If the way also has bicycle=yes there is usually a separate way nearby for walking. 1300
foot=private OSM: The owner may give permission on an individual basis. Same interpretation as for the access tag. 250
foot=destination OSM: The public has right of access only if this is the only road to your destination. This route should only be used as a means of getting to or from a specific point. It should not be used for transit to somewhere else. 0

Oneway Tag

Defined: Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Key:oneway | Usage statistics

The following table summarises how the oneway tag is used on OSM ways for the UK and Ireland in December 2010.

Tag Description Usage
oneway=no OSM: Oneway streets are streets where you are only allowed to ride in one direction. This value means that it is not a one way street. 43064964
oneway=yes OSM: Oneway streets are streets where you are only allowed to ride in one direction. This value means that the direction of flow is with the direction of the way. If bicycles are allowed to ride in the opposite direction tag with one of the values of cycleway=* 3923794
oneway=-1 OSM: Oneway streets are streets where you are only allowed to ride in one direction. This value (-1) means that the direction of flow has the opposite sense to the direction of the way. If bicycles are allowed to ride in the opposite direction tag with one of the values of cycleway=* 30477

Ways that are marked as oneway=yes, but which also have the following tags are imported as 2-way streets, for cycling:

An example: http://www.openstreetmap.org/way/4937416

Process the Way tags

This page is a work in progress, and may be incomplete [Late Jan 2011].

The procedure applied to the extracted planet data is a script of SQL statements (see Icon Conversion from OSM - sieving) and is explained below.

  1. Create a table (called map_wayFixed) to hold the way tags that are of interest to cycle routing.
  2. Create a row in the table for each way in the extracted planet data.
  3. Copy the original tags to the tags field.
  4. Fill the highway, cycleway, access, bicycle, foot, oneway fields from their respective OSM tags.

At this point the highway field has a wider range of values than the recognised values in the table above. Some of the values will be spelling mistakes, which can be corrected, and other values mean that the way is not relevant to cycle routing. The repair phase, next, narrows the range to the recognised values.

Repair

The sieving script continues with the following steps.

  1. Maintain the Icon repair table. This contains entries that record how often the fields contain unrecognised values.
  2. Entries in the repair table are used to provide common fixes for old or deprecated tag values, such as replacing the invalid combination: oneway=true with oneway=yes.
  3. This method is also used to ignore ways that cannot be routed over, such as replacing cycleway=bmx_track with highway=ignore.

The result of this step is that the way fields have a well defined set of values.

Implied tags

The sieving script continues by adding all of the implied tags in the highway table for the recognized fields.

Special recognition

Some special case rules are applied:

Bike routes

Defined: Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Cycle_routes

There are various methods for marking cycle routes in OSM, either in relations or on the ways directly. The script looks for:

Traffic Signals

Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Tag:highway%3Dtraffic_signals

Nodes tagged highway=traffic_signals are interpreted by default as a traffic light controlled junction.

Nodes tagged crossing=traffic_signals are interpreted as traffic light controlled crossings, such as a pelican or toucan crossing.

Crossings

Icon http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Crossing

These are nodes tagged with highway=crossing specify the crossing type with crossing=*. CycleStreets does not yet [Jan 2011] make use of this information.

Nodes tagged with crossing=toucan imply bicycle=yes.

We welcome your feedback, especially to report bugs or give us route feedback.

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